Constructive Interference in 802.15.4: A Tutorial


Constructive Interference (CI) can happen when multiple wireless devices send the same frame at the same time. If the time offset between the transmissions is less than 500 ns, a receiver will successfully decode the frame with high probability. CI can be useful for achieving low-latency communication or lowoverhead flooding in a multi-hop low-power wireless network. The contribution of this article is three-fold. First, we present the current state-of-the-art CI-based protocols. Second, we provide a detailed hands-on tutorial on how to implement CI-based protocols on TelosB motes, with well documented open-source code. Third, we discuss the issues and challenges of CI-based protocols, and list open issues and research directions. This article is targeted at the level of practicing engineers and advanced researchers and can serve both as a primer on CI technology and a reference to its implementation.

In IEEE Communications Surveys & Tutorials.